Battery Pack -
power an electric motor and turn the wheels. When depleted, the main battery is recharged either from a home charging socket or an EV charging station.
Supplementary Battery -
the auxiliary battery provides electricity to power vehicle accessories and electronics.
Charge Port -
allows the electric vehicle to connect to an external power supply in order to charge the main battery pack.
Onboard Charger -
takes incoming AC electricity supplied via the charge port and converts it to DC power for charging the main battery, monitoring battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge.
DC Voltage Converter -
converts higher-voltage DC power from the main battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power to run vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.
Electric Motor -
drives the vehicle's wheels, the electric motor gets its power from an electronics controller. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration main battery.
Electronics Controller -
manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the main battery, controlling speed, acceleration and torque of the electric motor. The controller gets its power from the main battery pack.
EV Transmission -
simple one step transmission, transfers mechanical power from the electric motor to the wheels.
Cooling System -
air and liquid cooling system maintains a proper operating temperature of the main battery pack, electric motor, power electronics and other components.
Discharging the main battery generates heat, the more rapidly battery is discharge, the more heat it generates.
The most used electric cars can operate sufficiently to cover the average commute, they’re ideal for around city use. The number of public charging stations is increasing every year, but most often battery charging is done at home.
Levels of Charging EV
AC current 120 V - 20 Amp plugging into standard wall outlet at home.
Electric vehicles come with a cord set that plugs into a wall outlet.
The slowest speed but the most economical of charging EVs.
AC current 240 V - 40 Amp for overnight charging at home.
EVs in North America has the same charging standard J17772.
Drivers can install Level 2 station at home, to improve charging speed.
Level 2 station will full recharge electric vehicle over night.
Tesla is using own unique Level 2 standard.
J17772 adapter can be use to charge Tesla vehicles.
EV public charging station
DC current 480 V Quick Charge designed for long trips recharge battery to 80% in 30 - 60 min
DC current 480 V - 120 kW Fast Charging station, recharge battery to 80% in 30 min
IKEA DC Quick Charging Station
EV Questions and Answers
Battery Pack Lifespan:
batteries in EVs are designed for a long life, currently most manufacturers are offering from 8 to 10 year 160 000 km - 100 000 mile warranties for their Battery Packs. Life expectancy of a healthy batteries is from 1200 to 1500 cycles, it translates to 580 000 km - 360 000 mile.
Battery Pack Health:
state of health of batteries is an important factor to consider when buying a used electric car. Is recommend to get a copy of a recent scan of the battery before purchasing or settling the price. Most dealers will scan the batteries and show the results if you ask for health scan.
The top twelfth bars on the Nissan Leaf battery health display, the 12 top bar drops off when the batteries state of health drops to around 85%. Therefore a 10 top bar is likely to have somewhere between 70% and 79% of battery health.
Preservation of EV Batteries:
• minimize use of DC Fast Charging
• don’t park in extremely hot or cold places
• use Cruise control to reduce braking and fast acceleration
• cast when is possible
• use Eco Mode for long journey
electric cars require less maintenance than conventional cars because there are much less fluids as engine oil and transmission fluid to change, and fewer moving parts to service.
electric cars must undergo the same rigorous safety testing and meet the same safety standards required for conventional cars, as well as EV-specific standards for chemical spillage from batteries. Securing batteries during a crash and isolating the chassis from the high-voltage system to prevent electric shock.
In addition EVs tend to have a lower center of gravity than conventional cars, making them less likely to roll over.
Risk of Electric Shock:
part of EVs safety standards is to isolating the chassis from the high-voltage system to prevent electric shock.
ePedal One Pedal Driving:
ePedal allows the driver to launch, accelerate - decelerate and stop eletric vehicle by using only the accelerator pedal.
• Deceleration, easing off the accelerator pedal creates a deceleration force comparable to stepping on the brakes. The electronic motor management ePedal system delivers smooth automated deceleration, even while traveling downhill.
• Stopping, after the vehicle comes to a complete stop, the hydraulic brake system is automatically activated to keep electric car stationary. The system can keep the car stopped on a slope in uphill and downhill.
• Brake Lights, will light up when the electric car is decelerating or stopping.