An electric car known as EV electric vehicle, is powered fully by an electric motor and battery.
Electric vehicles uses energy stored in the main battery, which are recharged by household electricity or charging station. Electric cars reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution every time you drive.
Main Components of an EV
EV components
Battery Pack - power an electric motor and turn the wheels. When depleted, the main battery is recharged either from a home charging socket or an EV charging station.

Supplementary Battery - the auxiliary battery provides electricity to power vehicle accessories and electronics.

Charge Port - allows the electric vehicle to connect to an external power supply in order to charge the main battery pack.

Onboard Charger - takes incoming AC electricity supplied via the charge port and converts it to DC power for charging the main battery, monitoring battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge.

DC Voltage Converter - converts higher-voltage DC power from the main battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power to run vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.

Electric Motor - drives the vehicle's wheels, the electric motor gets its power from an electronics controller. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration main battery.

Electronics Controller - manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the main battery, controlling speed, acceleration and torque of the electric motor. The controller gets its power from the main battery pack.

EV Transmission - simple one step transmission, transfers mechanical power from the electric motor to the wheels.

Cooling System - air and liquid cooling system maintains a proper operating temperature of the main battery pack, electric motor, power electronics and other components.
Discharging the main battery generates heat, the more rapidly battery is discharge, the more heat it generates.
Charge electric vehicle
The most used electric cars can operate sufficiently to cover the average commute, they’re ideal for around city use. The number of public charging stations is increasing every year, but most often battery charging is done at home.

EV charging
Charge time Three Levels of Charging EV


1 level
AC current 120 V - 20 Amp plugging into a wall outlet at home.
Slowest speed of charging - 1 hour charge = 6.5 km / 4 mile drive
2 level
AC current 240 V - 40 Amp for overnight charging at home.
1 hour charge = 40 km / 25 mile drive

Parking charging station Level 2 Charging Station

3 level
DC current 480 V Quick Charge, recharge battery up to 80% in 30 - 45 min
1 hour charge = 250 km - 155 mile drive
Tesla supercharger
DC current 480 V - 120 kW Fast Charging station, recharge battery up to 80% in 30 min

DC Quick charging station
IKEA DC Quick Charging Station
EV Questions and Answers

question Battery Pack Lifespan:
batteries in EVs are designed for a long life, currently most manufacturers are offering from 8 to 10 year 160 000 km - 100 000 mile warranties for their Battery Packs. Life expectancy of a healthy batteries is from 1200 to 1500 cycles, it translates to 580 000 km - 360 000 mile.

question Battery Pack Health:
state of health of batteries is an important factor to consider when buying a used electric car. Is recommend to get a copy of a recent scan of the battery before purchasing or settling the price. Most dealers will scan the batteries and show the results if you ask for health scan.

Nissan Leaf battery display
The top twelfth bars on the Nissan Leaf battery health display, the 12 top bar drops off when the batteries state of health drops to around 85%. Therefore a 10 top bar is likely to have somewhere between 70% and 79% of battery health.

question Preservation of EV Batteries:
• minimize use of DC Fast Charging
• don’t park in extremely hot or cold places
• use Cruise control to reduce braking and fast acceleration
• cast when is possible
• use Eco Mode for long journey

question EV Maintenance:
electric cars require less maintenance than conventional cars because there are much less fluids as engine oil and transmission fluid to change, and fewer moving parts to service.

question EVs Safety:
electric cars must undergo the same rigorous safety testing and meet the same safety standards required for conventional cars, as well as EV-specific standards for chemical spillage from batteries. Securing batteries during a crash and isolating the chassis from the high-voltage system to prevent electric shock.
In addition EVs tend to have a lower center of gravity than conventional cars, making them less likely to roll over.

question Risk of Electric Shock:
part of EVs safety standards is to isolating the chassis from the high-voltage system to prevent electric shock.

question ePedal One Pedal Driving:
ePedal allows the driver to launch, accelerate - decelerate and stop eletric vehicle by using only the accelerator pedal.
• Deceleration, easing off the accelerator pedal creates a deceleration force comparable to stepping on the brakes. The electronic motor management ePedal system delivers smooth automated deceleration, even while traveling downhill.
• Stopping, after the vehicle comes to a complete stop, the hydraulic brake system is automatically activated to keep electric car stationary. The system can keep the car stopped on a slope in uphill and downhill.
• Brake Lights, will light up when the electric car is decelerating or stopping.
EV Warning and Alert Indicators - info

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is a problem with Battery Pack.

This indicator light is a sign of the potential problems with Charging System.
Stop driving, pull over the Main Battery is no longer charging.


Car Main Battery is a Rechargeable Battery Pack that houses many individual cells.
• Leading cause of premature failure with the Main Batteries has been undercharging. The problem on frequent Stop-and-Go city driving with the Air Condition on, during warm weather. This leave the Battery in a low state of charge depleted. Over time cause the Battery deterioration and failure.
• To extend Main Battery lifespan, the Battery must be maintained at min 10 percent of its charge.
• If Main Battery is allowed to fully discharge and is not recharged within 90 days, it can fail.
• Extreme heat or cold can also damage the Main Battery.
• If the charging cable is connected while the READY indicator is illuminated, driving is possible.
• When the charging cable is connected, the shift position can not be changed from the Park position.
Charging System problems should be addressed without delay. Do not continue driving, seek assistance.

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is a problem with Charging System.

The indicator light is a sign of the charging system malfunction, external charger error or interruption during the charging process.

Check charging cable connection.
EVs utilize rechargeable batteries, which can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source.
To recharge car Main Battery, follow your vehicle owner's manual procedure.
Charging System problems should be addressed without delay. Have your car checked by an authorized service.

Warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is a problem with Drive System.

This indicator light is a sign of the Drive System malfunction.
Drive with caution, reduce speed there is a malfunction in system components.

If the Direct Response System warning light blinks while driving, it may indicate that the Main Battery charge is low, depleted.

Drive System problems should be addressed without delay. Have your car checked by an authorized service.

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when power of the electric motor is reduced.
Drive with caution, reduce speed.


This indicator comes on when power provided by the electric motor is reduced, and the Main Battery is nearly discharge. The charge in the Battery has been used up, it has no more power.
The car is only able to drive at low speed and Air Condition is shuts off.

Power Down warning illuminates, when the energy level of the Main Battery is low, depleted. Or when the temperature of the electric motor or Main Battery is too high.

To recharge your Battery, follow your vehicle owner's manual procedure.
Over heating problem should be addressed without delay. Have your car checked by an authorized service.

Drive with caution, reduce speed.
This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when the Main Battery depleted.


Battery Pack is nearly discharge, slow down and shut off the Air Condition.
Energy level of the Main Battery is low, depleted. The charge in the Battery has been used up, it has no more power.
Charge Level indicator shown on the instrument panel.

Recharge Main Battery very soon, follow your vehicle owner's manual procedure.
Battery Pack problem should be addressed without delay, recharged the Battery Pack.

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is a serious Propulsion System failure.

Stop driving, pull over. There is a malfunction in Propulsion System components.

The indicator light is a sign of the electrical component fault, or system failure that will enter into a limited operating mode.

The Propulsion System in an EVs consists of an energy storage system, the power converter and the propulsion motor and related controllers.
Check message may also appear on the display panel.
Propulsion System problems should be addressed without delay. Do not continue driving, seek assistance.

This indicator illuminates to inform the driver when Electronic Speed Limiter is activated.

The LIM or Speed Limiter is an optional facility provided to the driver, which enables him to set a maximum cruising speed between 30 km/h and the maximum speed.
Once this maximum speed has been set, LIM indicator illuminates in the instrument cluster.
This provides the driver to increase the accelerating velocity by 1 km or 10 km at a time, to reach desired speed limit.

Set the Speed Limiter, by pressing the LIM switch on the Cruise Control. The desired maximum speed is then stored. The LIM often comes with Speed Limit Assistance.
If the LIM indicator comes on and stays on while driving, have your car checked by an authorized service.

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is a problem with the cooperative control in Regenerative Brake System.
Do not continue driving, with the Regenerative Brake light on.


The indicator light comes on while driving, is a sign of malfunction or failure of the Regenerative Brake System components.

Regenerative Brake System recaptures the energy when the Brakes are applied. Regenerative System works to transform the Electric Motor into an Electric Generator when braking.

When the brake pedal is pressed, the regenerative braking circuit switches the electric motor so that it now operates in reverse to counter the direction of the wheels, slowing down vehicle.
This makes it perform like a Power Generator that produces electrical energy.

Note At higher speeds, Regenerative Brakes still require the assistance of traditional brake systems to be applied as a backup.

Check message may also appear on the display panel.
Regenerative Braking Systems problems should be addressed without delay, seek assistance.

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is a problem with the cooperative control in Regenerative Brake System.
Do not continue driving, with the Regenerative Brake light on.


The indicator light comes on while driving, is a sign of malfunction or failure of the Regenerative Brake System components.

Regenerative Brake System recaptures the energy when the Brakes are applied. Regenerative System works to transform the Electric Motor into an Electric Generator when braking.

When the brake pedal is pressed, the regenerative braking circuit switches the electric motor so that it now operates in reverse to counter the direction of the wheels, slowing down vehicle.
This makes it perform like a Power Generator that produces electrical energy.

Note At higher speeds, Regenerative Brakes still require the assistance of traditional brake systems to be applied as a backup.

Check message may also appear on the display panel.
Regenerative Braking Systems problems should be addressed without delay, seek assistance.

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is a problem with the cooperative control in Regenerative Brake System.
Do not continue driving, with the Regenerative Brake light on.


The indicator light comes on while driving, is a sign of malfunction or failure of the Regenerative Brake System components.

Regenerative Brake System recaptures the energy when the Brakes are applied. Regenerative System works to transform the Electric Motor into an Electric Generator when braking.

When the brake pedal is pressed, the regenerative braking circuit switches the electric motor so that it now operates in reverse to counter the direction of the wheels, slowing down vehicle.
This makes it perform like a Power Generator that produces electrical energy.

Note At higher speeds, Regenerative Brakes still require the assistance of traditional brake systems to be applied as a backup.

Check message may also appear on the display panel.
Regenerative Braking Systems problems should be addressed without delay, seek assistance.

This indicator light illuminates when the Intelligent Brake Assist IBA system is switch off, is not operating.

The Intelligent Brake Assist IBA system warns the driver by a warning light and chime when there is a risk of a collision, with the vehicle ahead in the traveling lane and the driver must take avoidance action immediately.
The IBA system also helps reduce the rear-end collision.

Vehicle ahead indicator warning.
Collision alert comes on when following a vehicle closely, the light flashes when a vehicle is being rapidly approached.

Caution the IBA system is not a Collision Avoidance System. IBA will not detect: pedestrians, animals, or obstacles in the roadway.
The system will not detect another vehicle when the sensor gets dirty and when driving into a strong sunlight.

When the IBA off indicator light illuminates with the warning chime sound while the IBA system is turned on, this indicates that the system may not be functioning properly, system control is unavailable.

Note common problem is dirt on the front sensors. Car wash or cleaning will resolve the issue.

Check if the front laser sensor or camera lens is clean. Restart the system, if the IBA Off indicator illuminates after your clean the sensor and restart the car, there is a malfunction or failure of the Intelligent Brake Assist IBA system.
Intelligent Brake Assist IBA system problems should be addressed without delay. Have your car checked by an authorized service.

Drive with caution, reduce speed.
This indicator illuminates to inform the driver when the Battery Pack Service is required.


The light comes on when Main Battery need to be serviced.
Do not ignore Battery Service warning light. Have your car checked by an authorized service without delay.

Drive with caution, reduce speed.
This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is a problem with EPS Electric Power Steering


If the EPS warning light comes on while the System is running, it indicates the EPS Electric Power Steering is not functioning properly and may require service.

When the EPS light illuminates, the Power Assist to the steering will cease operation, but you will still have control of the vehicle.

Note greater efforts are required to operate the steering wheel.

When the steering wheel operation is performed, the EPS may stop. Turn Off the ignition switch and wait for a while. The temperature of the EPS system will go down and the Power Assist should return to normal, after restarting.
Electric Power Steering problems should be addressed without delay. Have your car checked by an authorized service.

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when Pre Collision system malfunction.

The PCS light comes on when there is a malfunction or failure of the Advanced Pre Collision System, or system components.

Advanced Pre Collision System helps the driver avoid collisions with vehicles or pedestrians under a wide range of city or highway speeds, by day or night.

PCS features wave radar sensor to detect obstacles in front of the car, even during cornering. Via numerous sensors a Pre Collision System computer monitors vehicle speed, steering angle to help determine in advance whether an impending rear end collision with a preceding vehicle is unavoidable.

Caution If the driver does not brake and a collision is inevitable, Pre-Collision Brake will automatically apply the brakes to reduce the impact.

Check If the area around the front radar lens is blocked by dirt or mud.
Park your vehicle and wipe off the lens, with a soft cloth.
Pre Collision System PCS system problems should be addressed without delay. Have your car checked by an authorized service.

Drive with caution, reduce speed.
This indicator light illuminates to warn the driver when the Vehicle Stability Control VSC system is no operating as normal.


Vehicle Stability Control and the Traction Control systems are disabled, system malfunction. The vehicle will still have Brake Traction Control assistance.

Caution It may be necessary to turn the VSC system off, if the vehicle is stuck in sand, mud or snow.

Vehicle Stability Control system which combines Antilock Brake, Traction and Stability Control systems, helps the driver maintain directional control of the vehicle.
Traction Control activates when the controller senses wheel spin. VSC will selectively apply the Brakes and reduce Engine torque to help regain traction.
Vehicle Stability Control selectively applies Braking pressure at any one of the vehicle's Brakes to help guide the vehicle in the intended direction.

Note noises may be heard as a result of the Brake Traction Control operating. This is normal.
Vehicle Stability Control problems should be addressed without delay, have your car checked by an authorized service.

This indicator light illuminates to warn the driver when there is a problem with vehicle Acoustic Alert system.

This light comes on if there is a malfunction in the Approaching Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians VSP system.

Electric Vehicle Warning Sounds are a series of sounds designed to alert pedestrians to the presence of electric vehicle when travelling at low speeds.
Acoustic Alert is necessary because electric vehicles produce less noise than traditional engine vehicles and can make it more difficult for pedestrians, to be aware of their presence.

• The sound starts when the vehicle starts accelerating, and when the vehicle speed is less than 16 MPH - 25 km/h while decelerating.
• VSP System is automatically turned on when the vehicle is in Ready To Drive Mode and on the Reverse position.

Check message may also appear on the display panel.
Approaching Vehicle Sound System problems should be addressed without delay. Have your car checked by an authorized service.

This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver when vehicle Acoustic Alert system is operating.

The light comes on when the Approaching Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians VSP system is automatically turned on.

Electric Vehicle Warning Sounds are a series of sounds designed to alert pedestrians to the presence of electric vehicle, when travelling at low speeds.
Acoustic Alert is necessary because electric vehicles produce less noise than traditional engine vehicles and can make it more difficult for pedestrians, to be aware of their presence.

• The sound starts when the vehicle starts accelerating, and when the vehicle speed is less than 16 MPH - 25 km/h while decelerating.
• VSP System is automatically turned on when the vehicle is in Ready To Drive Mode.


This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver whenever electric vehicles is ready to be driven.

Ready to Drive indicator light comes on once the Vehicle has been switched On, the system is powered and the vehicle may be driven.
No problems have been detected.

Vehicle Ready is automatically activated when the Key Fob is presentd.

Message may also appear on the display panel, stating Ready to Drive.


This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver whenever electric vehicle is ready to be driven.

Ready to Drive indicator light comes on once the Vehicle has been switched on, the system is powered and the vehicle may be driven.
No problems have been detected.

Vehicle Ready is automatically activated when the Key Fob is present.

Message may also appear on the display panel, stating Ready to Drive.


This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver whenever electric vehicle is ready to be driven.

Ready to Drive indicator light comes on once the Vehicle has been switched On, the system is powered and the vehicle may be driven.
No problems have been detected.

Vehicle Ready is automatically activated when the Key Fob is present.

Message may also appear on the display panel, stating Ready to Drive.


This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver when Lane Keeping Assistance system is actively operating.

Lane Keeping Assist technology is designed to alert the driver when the system detects that the vehicle is about to deviate from a traffic lane. The system also works in conjunction with the Radar Cruise Control system to help keep the vehicle on course.
The front camera recognize the lines on certain types of roads, this will aid the driver's steering to stay within their lane.

If the vehicle deviates from its course and if you're slow to react or do not respond, Lane Keeping Aid will help guide you back into the correct lane, the system helps the car to stay on course near the center of the lane by continuously applying a small amount of counter steering force.

Note To help keep vehicle from drifting out of your lane when Cruise Control is in operation, the system gives an audible warning. After warning, it takes corrective Steering action to help keep vehicle in the lane. When Cruise Control is not engaged, the system sounds a warning if the vehicle drifts out of your lane.
If the LKA indicator light continues to illuminate all the time, driver is requested to contact an authorized service.

This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver when the Power Mode is operating.

The indicator light comes on when the Power Mode switch is pressed, press the switch again to exit Power Mode, the indicator light goes out.

Driving on Power Mode helps increases gas pedal sensitivity for more powerful acceleration, improving vehicle performance.


This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver when the Economy Mode is operating.

The indicator light comes on when the ECO switch is pressed, press the switch again to exit fuel Economy Mode, the indicator light goes out.

Driving on Economy Mode helps to improve economy and preserve Battery, Economy Mode system adjusting vehicle performance and reducing setting of the Climate Control and Air Conditioner.

Main Battery Meter is also be visible on the instrument panel.


This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver when the Economy Mode is operating.

The indicator light comes on when the ECO switch is pressed, press the switch again to exit fuel Economy Mode, the indicator light goes out.

Driving on Economy Mode helps to improve economy and preserve Battery, Economy Mode system adjusting vehicle performance and reducing setting of the Climate Control and Air Conditioner.

Main Battery Meter is also be visible on the instrument panel.


Drive with caution, reduce speed.
This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when the Battery Pack is depleted.


High Voltage Main Battery is nearly discharge, slow down and shut off the Air Condition.
Energy level of the Main Battery is low, depleted. The charge in the Battery Pack has been used up, it has no more power.
Battery Charge Level indicator shown on the instrument panel.

Plug in your electric vehicle into a charging station, recharge your Battery very soon. Follow your vehicle owner's manual procedure.
The Battery Pack problems should be addressed without delay.

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is an external charger problem.

The indicator light is a sign of the external charger error, charging system malfunction or interruption during the charging process.

Check charging cable connection.
EVs utilize rechargeable batteries, which can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source.
To recharge Main Battery, follow your vehicle owner's manual procedure.
Charging System problems should be addressed without delay. Have your car checked by an authorized service.

This warning light illuminates to warn the driver when there is an external charger problem.

The indicator light is a sign of the external charger error, charging system malfunction or interruption during the charging process.

Check charging cable connection.
EVs utilize rechargeable batteries, which can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source.
To recharge Main Battery, follow your vehicle owner's manual procedure.
Charging System problems should be addressed without delay. Have your car checked by an authorized service.

This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver when the Charging Timer function is operating.

The Charging Timer light indicates you are using the Charging Timer function to recharge Main Battery.
Charging time for Batteries depends on how much voltage you have available.

By using the Charging Timer function, deterioration of the Battery charge can be suppressed, Off-peak electricity rates can be used effectively.
• Charging Start and Finish time can be assigned.
• The same charging time can be assigned again just by pressing the Charging Timer switch.
• system will not start, while the charging cable is attached to the vehicle.
When the Battery is fully charged, all four quadrants are illuminated and the charging process will cease.

Battery Charge Level indicator shown on the instrument panel.


This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver when electric vehicle is plugged in into the Charge Port.

The plugged in light indicates when the charging cable is connected and Main Battery is charging.

Charging time for Batteries depends on how much voltage you have available.
• system will not start, while the charging cable is attached to the vehicle.
When the Battery is fully charged, all four quadrants are illuminated and the charging process will cease.

Battery Charge Level indicator shown on the instrument panel.


This indicator light illuminates to inform the driver when the electric vehicle is plugged into the Charge Port.

The Charge Port Plugged In light indicates when the charging cable is connected and Main Battery is charging.

Illuminated Charge Port
When the connector cord is plugged into the Plug-In charge port, the port will illuminate into quadrants to indicate its current level of charge.
When the Battery is fully charged, all four quadrants are illuminated and the charging process will cease.

Battery Charge Level indicator shown on the instrument panel.